viernes, 27 de abril de 2007
History. San Miguel de Allende in the context of Mesoamérica.
Approach to the understanding of the society in San Miguel de Allende.
This is an approach to the relation between the people who inhabit the zone of San Miguel de Allende and the Northeast of Guanajuato with the millenarian cultural inheritance of the mesoamericans natives that were developed in all Mesoamérica and the particular relation with the indigenous groups that inhabited the high river basin of the Laja River at different moments.
I. The context in the understanding of Mexico and Mesoamérica.
To way of antecedent parallel to this subject, it is precise to understand the context concept, that, as of Century XX the well-known historiographyc school named Les annals of the new French historians of century XX, among others: Marc Bloch. Lucien Lefebvre, Fernand Braudel, Emmanuel Le Roy y Jacques Le Goff, began to propose the revision of the times last of the humanity from the context.
With the context we can understand the reality of yesterday and today, from three great factors, all of them interlaces to each other, these elements are: time, space and circumstances or accidents.
From the origin of the Universe, until the times of the climatic change, they have always existed: a time, a space and specific circumstances that they have marked every moment of the cosmos from his majorities to his particular situations.
All the social beings, in addition to the time and space, they present specific circumstances: of government (Political), of administration of resources (economic), of its form to interact among them (social), its last inheritance and its visions or intuitions of future (cultural) and the form in which they are related to his surroundings (ecological)
Three revolutions in the human civilization.
Like another antecedent, we can indicate three great revolutions in the humanity: the neolithic one, the industrialist and postmodern. In the neolithic revolution, the human being domestic servant some plants for its consumption as food (cereals the majority) generates excessive of food, it begins to settle down in villages to become sedentary and it counts on greater free time for the reflection of its paper in the Universe and before its community and others, from which they are formed different civilizations. In this stage they are begun to generate the religions from myths and rituals, the previous thing with the purpose of which the elite in the power could have control on the mass where he dominant group is the leaders.
This revolution happens between 7.000 years before ours was, in Mesoamérica, agriculture is from teozintle or primitive maize, in Mesopotamia and India, from the Wheat, in China from the rice and the Andean plateau from the Pope and other tubercles.
This revolution happens between 7.000 years before ours was, in Mesoamérica, agriculture is from teozintle or primitive maize, in Mesopotamia and India, from the Wheat, in China from the rice and the Andean plateau from the Pope and other tubercles. This one, it will transform the form of the production and will establish the economic conditions of liberalism and the expansion of the commerce in all the Planet, among other consequences.
The revolution postmodern, still we are living it and is noticeable, according to the Colombian sociologist Fernando You watch, by several revolutions (emblematic),
bound to each other, that is to say: i) feminist (appearance of the contraceptive pill in 1966); II) the policy (promotion of the democracy and rejection to the authoritarianism like the declared thing in 1968, the movement hippie, the fight by the human rights); III) Revolution microelectronics (micro - Chips and its implication in the communication, cybernetics and industrial and enterprise life); IV) ecological or the effects of the human being in the surroundings and its negative implications in the biodiversity and the environment.
Finally, like synthesis: the paradigmatic revolution, marked by the fast change of the models and political patterns, economic, social, cultural and ecological to that the human being must give answer.
The dynamic context of the human being.
In synthesis, the factors of the context happen all simultaneously, in a time - space and specific circumstances for each individual, community, region, Country, continent, all of them are important for the understanding of the civilizations that have shared a specific time, or, a space with others.
II. Context of Mesoamérica
Mesoamérica is a concept created by Paul Kirchof in 1943 to define a territory (space) occupied by natives whom shared cultural characteristics, own of a civilization, expressed in different cultural forms according to the surroundings or environment in which they lived.
The rise of agriculture.
The mesoamerican time, for one better understanding has been divided in four chronological phases, previous to history or an archaic time and three historical horizons: Pre - classic or Formativo, Classic and Post - classic.
At the archaic time, the domestication of the primitive corn appeared in Mesoamérica does near 7.000 years before Christ (b.C.), from this event they were begun to form the first villages of sedentary natives, probably, with schemes of communitarian government, obtaining an excess in the food production and therefore in the temporary storage of them to count on food the year throughout; administering to these resources and other relative to the different tasks and hierarchies formed in the primitive community.
In the social thing, the first communitarian clans are developed from the family in different patterns, depending on the surroundings.
When having excessive of food and increasing the time free, the first mesoamericans that comprised of the elite, they began to create myths to share with the community in collective rituals and of this form one went generating the mesoamerican religion next to the first cultural characteristics, expressed in the objects that extended to their present and showing their yearnings in the future.
Next to the production of the primitive corn with early agriculture, the mesoamerican collected seeds it began to use the resources of its ecosystems to increase its quality levels of life and tried a symbiotic life with the means that surrounded it.
The Mesoamerican time.
In general terms, we can affirm that the understanding of the past pre-Hispanic, of which at the moment it is the Mexican Republic, it begins to understand the time and the mesoamerican space. As far as the chronology of the different indigenous cultural groups, the lines of the time orient generally by regions phisiographic or corresponding to different ecosystems and geographic sites, where, for one better understanding settles down the archaic or prehistoric time, from the appearance of the first cultures of primitive maize or teozintle, until the appearance of the first sites inhabited like centers of being able theocratic, inscriptions, narrative and descriptive petroglyph of concepts and events of the communitarian life. These events happened, in the general, of 7.000 years before Christ, until about 2.000 years before Christ
After this moment, the Mesoamerican historians have settled down three historical horizons for a better understanding of the evolution of the mesoamerican civilization, that is to say: the horizon Pre - classic or Formativo that goes of 2.000 years before ours was to 40 years before ours was. After this moment, the Mesoamérica historians have settled down three historical horizons for a better understanding of the evolution of the mesoamerican civilization, that is to say: the horizon Pre - classic or Formativo that goes of 2.000 years before ours was to 40 years before ours was. The Classic horizon that goes of: 40 years before ours it was up to 1.100 years after ours was. Finally, the historical horizon of the Post - classic that includes from the 1.100 to the 1521, year in which it fell conquered: Mexico - Tenochtitlan.
The flexible border of Mesoamérica.
The geographic limits of Mesoamérica were varying according to the context transformed to the passage of time. Of such luck, the territory of Mesoamérica included to the North: from the south of the present state of Sinaloa, happening on the part of the States of Nayarit, Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luís Potosí y Tamaulipas and extended until the Northwest of Honduras. In this territory, where the señoríos (kingdoms) were determined by the metropolis or dominant cities, the borders were flexible and they moved constantly. Nowadays, archaeological sites like members or not of Mesoamérica are discussed so it is the case of the archaeological sites in the State of Guanajuato known like: Gorge of the Virgin or the Cóporo.
The border of Mesoamérica in the North of Guanajuato.
Like part of the context of the North region of the State of Guanajuato, from San Miguel de Allende, towards the North, the Mexican Central Plateau extends, which is a semi-empty one with smaller precipitations to 500 mm. of rain per year, it includes, in addition to the North of Guanajuato, part of the States of: San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, all of them part of Aridoamérica, another pre-Hispanic cultural region.
By the previous thing, the fisiographic border between semi-empty of the North of Guanajuato and the Axis Neovolcánico that begins in the volcano Peaks, to the south of San Miguel de Allende, it often agreed with the border between: Mesoamérica and Aridoamérica; other so many, it was it the channel of the Lerma river.
Mesoamérica in the XXI Century.
Nowadays, the mesoamerican territory, it is demarcated, somehow, by the indigenous languages that are spoken at the present time and that constitute a cultural inheritance of thousands of years showed in the daily communication and its influence in other spheres of the regional culture.
Native mesoamerican languages in century XXI.
At the present time they exist more than five million natives who speak near 70 different languages in Mexico and Centro America, indeed, in which it was Mesoamérica.
According to the Spanish Promoter of linguistic, four great families exist and a set of new native languages without a defined family. Of the family of mayenses languages: greater quicheano, Ixil - Man, Kanjob, Cluj, Cholana, Yuacateco and Huasteco. Of the family of languages Mixe - Zoque: Mixeano, Zoqueano, Totonaco, Hokano. Of the family of Otomanques languages: Otopame (spoken in the North - Northeast of the State of Guanajuato), Mixtecano, Zapotecano, Popolocano, Mange, Tlapaneco. Of the family Yuta - Nahua, or Yuto - Aztec: nahua, Kora. Finally of the recent native languages: the Lenkano. From all these they derive nowadays near 70 native languages with hablantes in the territory of the old Mesoamérica.
III. Historical horizons in Mesoamérica.
In synthesis, we can mention four great historical times for the development of Mesoamérica, which include the Archaic one, the Pre - classic or formativo, the Classic one, where some authors make the differentiation of a called horizon of transition Epi - classic or delayed classic (of transition) and finally the post - classic. These are characterized with the declivity of Teotihuacan, Palenque and Monte Albán.
As a characteristic of the three last historical horizons is possible to mention the political manifestation in the form of government like a reflection of the context lived by the mesoamericans in different times, thus we have in the preclassic horizon the government was theocratic; in the classic was theocratic – military, and in the posclassic it was net military edge.
Some authors like Felipe Solis, they consider that Preclassic finished near the 200 of ours was, the Classic one until the 900 of ours was, and the Post - classic I include an early period (until the 1200) and one delayed one. This one is based on the chronology of the mexica people.
The corn in the rise of Mesoamerica.
With the domestication of the primitive maize, call teozintle, on the part of the first mesoamericans, the cultural revolution for the development of the mesoamerican civilization occurred necessary. The appearance of agriculture in this region brought like consequence the sedentary life, sophistication in the rituals of life and death, and the creation of the religious system that would prevail in Mesoamérica until the arrival of the Spaniards.
As well, the maize will be bound to the religion and theogony of the first mesoamericans indigenous towns, as well as to everything a cultural process based on nutritional products generated of the grain of the maize like main element in the diet of the mesoamericans. Piperno ET. to. It has been considering that the domestication of the maize happened for 8.000 years, in the call Cave of the Thieves. For others like Enrique Florescano, the domestication of the maize happened 9.000 years ago, according to the evidences of caves of the Balsas river, or the Guila Naquitz cave in Oaxaca.
Antonio Tourrent, it mentions that the primitive maize was taken to Central America where hybrid, of return in Mesoamérica, the women began the practice of the nixtamal, that it consists of adding lime (Ca (OH2)) to the mass of the maize grain in its process of baking, in order to preserve to this one, besides to add minerals to the product.
As far as cosmogony, Florescano refers to us that in Palenque appears the inscription Hun Nal Ye or “One Maize”, that it was the moment at which the “sky” was divided in 8 parts, at the moment that appeared the Wakah Chan or “cosmic tree”, where it takes he, the precious seed of the maize in form of precious woman who comes from the underworld.
Christopher Columbus, it took the maize to Spain, but in Europe they did not make the nixtamal process reason why the tortillas did not conserve and sickened to which ate them, prelaga came, reason why one thought that the maize was suitable only for the natives or like excellent forage. This idea prevails to the present time, since the maize has been used in the United States, and Canada as forage and many visitors in San Miguel de Allende think that the maize of here can sicken them.
Of the first archaic communities in the Anáhuac, we can tell Tlatilco and Zacatenco.
The pre - classic in Mesoamérica.
Olmecs more well-known of the pre - classic horizon is the mesoamerican cultural group, their more famous sites are: San Lorenzo, Sale and Three Zapotes, these, they were developed near the South coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Olmecs more well-known of the pre - classic horizon is the mesoamerican cultural group, their more famous sites are: San Lorenzo, Sale and Three Zapotes, these, they were developed near the South coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
The pre - classic in the Laja River area.
In the river basin of the Laja river, the archaeologists have found vestiges of the Chupicuaro culture, with an age approximated of up to 2.500 years of antiquity. These vestiges are: small figures of ceramics known like Venus, to be associate to the fertility symbols (mainly by its wide hips), and some ceremonial pipes.
Like in many towns and cultures of the pre - classic one, in Chupicuaro the beginning of the socioeconomic stratification occurred, represented in the pottery, manifestation of the complexity of that society. These manifestations were registered of 400 years a. of C. up to 200 years d. of C.
These towns settled down to the margins of rivers and lagoons and began to form the first domestic units. In the region of the Laja river, monumental structures did not appear (pyramids), but, ritual tombs and burials, where they have been ceramics anthropomorphous, ceramics in red, black, coffee, target on red, all it, like an example of the funeral art of Chupicuaro, where the corporal painting is appraised, frontal turbans and bandage, the cult to the maternity and the fertility.
The classic horizon in Mesoamérica. Palenque, Chiapas.
In the classic horizon, stable urban societies in internal it formed during long periods of time. Cities arise in Mesoamérica like: Teotihuacan, Monte Albán, Tikal, Calackmul, Palenque, Copán, etc.
In Palenque, we can observe texts enrolled with bas-relief hieroglyphics, wakes, murals, in addition to expressed in sculptures and paintings murals.
The great majority of the important sites by its social and so large complexity of its constructions in Mesoamérica, they were destroyed or, in the best one of the cases, left between years 750 to 850 of ours it was.
For many investigators, perhaps it was the conjunction of several factors which determined the collapse of many of these sites, among others: environmental factors, bound to prolonged droughts (at least two related phenomena of the “boy”), what the food production diminished per consecutive years, combined to an accelerated population increase, urban expansion, concentration of being able politician, economic and military, favoring to an elite that began to lose stability before the popular revolts.
Sometimes, like in Palenque, the collapse happened at moment that was carried out remodeling or new constructions, reason why the interpretation of the factors that produced this fall in the Mayan zone continues with many lagoons.
Yaxilán and Bonampak.
In the Mayan zone at least five regions different with thousands are considered from archaeological sites, relatively just investigated, or that goes of last the 30 years to the date. Somehow, in them we can observe characteristics that appeared in the classic horizon in all Mesoamérica as the political power with the military man and monk due to the struggles by better earth is the presence of societies governed by an elite binding, ports, or strategically important points in the expansion of some of these cities.
In murals and under relief like those of Bonampak or Yaxilán, Chiapas, it is possible to be observed scenes military and of subjugated towns: dominant - winning on dominated - won.
In this period of time, the mesoamerican culture development aesthetic expressions that reflected simultaneously, emotions and spirit towards the surroundings, so it is the case of small figures of mud of Jainá, Campeche, with a plasticity and unique movement.
With this type of ceramics, we can also appreciate the own personality that each site treatment to maintain in spite of the influence of cosmopolitan or very dominant cities.
Investigators like Roman Chán Fragmentation hand grenade, they considered figures of a unique beauty, with style purity, perhaps by the insular character of the site (Jainá, it means house in the water). After all, this classic site of the delayed one, like many others, it was a town soldier, hunter, fisherman and practiced the commerce.
Monte Albán, Oaxaca.
In central valleys of the State of Oaxaca, zapoteca by more was developed to the culture than 1.200 years, reaching in the classic one, the peak its development as society you falsify and complex, with architectonic elements, sculpture, pictorial, decorative, of pottery, jewelry, etc., that they demonstrate the previous thing.
The city of Monte Alban, it was constructed in an artificial plateau where the city by more existed than thousand years, with its peculiar scapular board style.
Like many other sites of the classic one, Monte Albán was designed under a plan of development related to the passage of the stars, which constituted referring the main ones to establish the calendars agricultural and ritual, base of the activities related to the mesoamerican religion.
Monte Albán counted on ritual tombs, ball game, buildings with sunk patio, platforms, government buildings, temples, astronomical observatory, ceramics, jewelry, bas-relief, sculpture and mural painting.
Single of from 1931 to 1943 180 tombs were located, being of most famous number seven. Monte Albán was the city more long life of Mesoamérica, and of course, the center more important zapoteco.
To go to the city of Teotihuacan represents to attend the celebration of the mexica myth of the birth of the Gods and to the cosmic urban design of two thousand years ago the old architects and teotihuacanos wise people created who located to the city like extension and permanent bond between she, the region, the planet and the universe.
This city that got to have a population between 80.000 and 120.000 inhabitants, one was of the most lived in its time and was most cosmopolitan in the Mesoamérica of the Classic time. Nowadays it is the investigated site more and perhaps most spectacular of the pre-Hispanic archaeological sites of Mexico it is the cultural and social bridge between the formative times and post - classic mesoamericanas which allows us to include/understand the roots and foundations of which nowadays it is shaped in our iconography and Mexican idiosyncrasy as they can be the uses of the spaces public to make social the knowledge, the ideas and the ideology of the moment.
Other authors, they consider that the population of Teotihuacan got to be from than 200.000 inhabitants occupying more an extension of 20 Km2, but lamentably, from its decay, the city has been exposed permanent sackings, the last ones happened in January of the 2006, facts denounced by doctor Linda Manzanilla, investigator in Teotihuacan with more than 20 years in the site. It is by the way, this investigator, who directed the excavation in the natural grotto underneath the called pyramid of the sun, where when finding bones of infants and an associated mask to Tláloc, God of the rainwater, it has been inferred that this great pyramid was dedicated to this deity.
Teotihuacan, by its importance in the mesoamerican civilization he has been one of the sites archaeological more explored in Mexico. In the last 10 years 30 new burials have been unearthed, in the call pyramid of the sun, specialists in nuclear physics of the independent national university of Mexico, and archaeologists of the national Institute of anthropology and history, they examine with muons (radioactive atomic structures) the structure of the building to be able to detect possible cameras in its interior.
The classic horizon in the region of San Miguel de Allende. Cañada de la Virgen, Guanajuato.
In the State of Guanajuato there exist more than thousand archaeological sites, what it speaks to us of the importance that had east site of the North border of Mesoamérica. As well, the municipality of Allende, Guanajuato (San Miguel de Allende, one of the 46 of the State, it counts with more than one hundred archaeological sites, being most important, by its monumental and design in function to the cosmic movement, the call: Cañada de la Virgen.
This site, for some authors it was a place with influence tolteca, but for many others it represents previous the foundation of Tula a little while, or Tollan Xicolotitlan, reason why prototolteca has been called him, to the towns that inhabited this site and other borders.
For the archaeologist in head of the Project of investigation cañada de la Virgen: Gabriela Zepeda García Moreno, this site is a reflection of the importance that has for national archaeology the study of little well-known regions, zones of border, like Guanajuato, where sites of sedentary occupation appear and others of testimonies of nomadic groups. This place is representative of the tradition deep - set court yard that appeared in Classic and epi - classic, in Guanajuato, being developed between 350 and 900 years of ours it was. For Gabriela Zepeda García Moreno it is expression of: an agricultural development advanced during the Maxima expression of the mesoamerican border to the north, product of an organization and specialization of the work in the governing centers. For this author, these sites of border were inhabited by the prototoltecas, before the collapse of Tula, in the present state of Hidalgo.
The archaeological site of Cañada de la Virgen, it is oriented to the east and it consists of 5 architectonic complexes, among others: two plinths with deep – set court yard (in Guanajuato the tradition of deep – set court appears in near 200 sites), circular structure, suspend and a road of 840 meters in length and 18 meters wide. The natural surroundings present a high biodiversity, with more than 150 varieties of plants and 40 of animals. For the mentioned author, the site was chosen like part of a process of systemic and ordered thought where: … the hills are axes computers for the urban design. Simultaneously, the observed hills served to elaborate calendars with the horizon to be able to measure and to divide the time in events of 7,13, and 20 days. In this design it is possible to be observed that the complex obeyed to a special design to predict the climate and to assure the agricultural cycle.
Other important data, in order to consider of the archaeological site Cañada de la Virgen, located to 30 km. To the south - the west of San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato; they are: The site consists of four constructive stages. 200 sites with deep – set court yard exist in Guanajuato more than, what allowed to disappear the horizon from its interior, to step on the feminine region of the duality and there, to rise to the great hill; the deep – set court controlled pluvial water used like water mirror and this one, lead to the pool or amanalli. In the site have been 10 burials, there are vestiges of which regional commerce existed under the direction of Gabriela Zepeda García Moreno.
The Cóporo, in the municipality of Ocampo, Guanajuato, he is another one of the four projects that have in the last investigated three years in the State.
In the Cóporo, vestiges of houses are had room in the base of the hill where it is, in the top, a series of structures of observation of stars, calendars dates and rituals monks.
He is one of the four sites in investigation within the state of Guanajuato. It is located in the south of Pénjamo and by the investigations made in the last three years by the team of the archaeologist Carlos Castañeda, it is possible to be observed that this site was one of the most complex cities of this border region.
It was developed between 600 and 900 years of ours it was, on three slopes, where, in addition to pyramidal constructions, they are: ball game, monumental buildings (covered houses), an extensive platform. To the east, the pyramids present a plant in form of “T”, representing the entrance to the underworld. On the other hand, the pyramids of the north are of quadrangular plant, in them it is observed in its walls slopes and boards.
To the east, the pyramids present a plant in form of “T”, representing the entrance to the underworld. On the other hand, the pyramids of the north are of quadrangular plant, in them it is observed in its walls slopes and boards.
One of the particular characteristics of the site, they are its stones worked with different objects, bound to the rain request. Many of rocks represent architectonic elements in miniature.
The archaeological zone, first it is opened to the public in the State of Guanajuato.
The post - classic horizon in Mesoamérica. Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán.
To 100 Km. of Morelia, the present State Capital of Michoacán, is the archaeological site of Tzintzuntzan, that it means place of hummingbird and it was the capital of the rising territory of purépechas of the lake of Pátzcuaro.
In fact, Michoacán means place of lakes and was around the river basin of this lake, where the leaders of dominion settled down their centers of government purépecha, being originally Tzintzuntzan the capital of the territory, under the government of Tariácuri, which, to its death it designated a: Pátzcuaro, Ihuatzio, and Tzintzuntzan the capitals of purépechas under the command of its children: Hiquingaje, Hiripan and Tangaxoan, respectively. This one was a territory that maintained its autonomy before the attack of the mexicas or Aztecs and that got to have more than 100 inhabitants in more than 96 communities.
The site presents a combination of rectangular and cylindrical structures in 13 levels on an enormous platform, that it is known him like Yácatas.
The small barren island of Mexico - Tenochtitlan, occupied by the mexicas or Aztecs, from 1325 to 1521, after escaping by almost two years of the town of Culiacán, it was the capital of last great dominion of Mesoamérica.
The saga of the mexicas was related by they themselves in the strip of the peregrination, where, they narrate to us that they left the mythical Aztlán in 1113, and after inhabiting Apaxco, Tecpayocan and Chapultepec, among other sites, and to have fought as mercenaries for tecpanecas of Azcapotzalco and culhuacas of Culhuacan they arrived at the small barren island of Mexico in 1325.
The call Greater Temple or Gran Teocalli, it was the nucleus of this city, its temple was dedicated to the Gods Tláloc and Hutzilopochtli, in sculptures like the Stone of the sun or Aztec Calendar, they represented the duality in the serpents diurnal - Quetzalcóatl and the nocturnal one - Tezcatlipoca. The previous thing, in order to refer the minimum, of the complex mesoamerican religious system, expressed in the great mexica pantheon and its complex system of rituals bound to a myth endless number, that they were as well the millenarian cultural inheritance of Mesoamérica received by the mexicas through two great traditions toltecas: the one of the toltecas nonoalcas and the one of the toltecas chichimecas.
Like most of the mesoamericans towns of the Post - classic, the mexicas were a town that had a government eminently military man and who after the conquest was ignored by the winning Spanish chronic reason why a series of negative myths around them has been created, more than a complex vision of that mesoamerican group and his complex culture. The mexica room in the head of the National Museum of Anthropology, in México City it can give a sample us of it, which we can complete in the visit to the museum and site of the Greater Temple, en the same City.
The Posclassic horizon in the Northeast of Guanajuato.
It is important to remember that San Miguel de Allende is in the South limit of which is the Mexican Plateau, a desert zone with inferior precipitations to 18 inch. / Year; with grounds settlement, in general poor for agriculture. This region was occupied by the groups chchimecas (the ancestry of dogs, bound to the nocturnal deities like Xólotl and Tezcatlipoca), that in general, they were constituted by the zacatecos, guachichiles, guamares and pames.
They were collectors, hunters, soldiers, having its border east with the otomí town and mazahua, and to the south with purépechas. Guamares, with two sub-groups: guaxábanes and copuces. The Chichimecas (called by some authors: Teochichimecas) occupied what is the present territory of the municipalities of: San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Dolores, San Felipe, San Diego of the Union, San Luis of La Paz, Dr. Mora and San Jose Iturbide.
To the arrival of the Spaniards to these earth, the otomíes, allies with the peninsular ones, for being subjugated by the mexicas (as well, allies with chichimecas to also divide these of Chicomostoc), they began to establish commercial relations later and relations of submission by the force of the arms and the imposition of the Catholicism (evangelization), in a process that lasted near fifty years.
At the moment, chchimecas of this region is in the Fat Mountain range of Guanajuato, near San Luis of La Paz, they speak the Jonás - Chichimeca, and they are descending of the natives who originally inhabited this earth to the arrival of the Spaniards in the middle of the century XVI, who were called by some Spaniards: mecos like contraction of chichimecos.
In the case of San Miguel de Allende, the otomí leader was Conín who began the conquest of these territories, in a process of years of commercialization and to be to the service of the Spanish crown. Its Castilian name was Hernando de Tapia, in this way it prepared the way so that, in 1542, fray Juan of San Miguel, guardian of the Franciscan convent of Acámbaro (in the today, state of Guanajuato) established a small congregation of guamares, otomíes and purépechas, before starting off for Xichú of Indians, in Guanajuato and Río Verde, in the present state of San Luis Potosí.
IV. The times of the conquest.
The conquest of the mesoamerican territory, like most of the wars of this type, they to each other do not represent a warm encounter between two totally different ethnic groups. The conquest was a violent period, like all: unjust, cruel inequality and; simultaneously, this war on the part of the European through the necessity, was justified to evangelize to the Indians. They were the years of climax of the Spanish monarchy related to the great power of the Catholic Church. In those first fifty years, the long process of conquest in the Great Chichimeca occurred, where: otomíes, the Spanish tlaxcaltecas and military as captains with technology and used strategy military in Europe won to the rebellious natives against the conquest.
Highest figure of the conquest was Hernán Cortés, man born in Medellín, Extremadura, Spain, that from the 20 years it was in America, spending 19 years in the island of the Spanish, of where it happened to the island of Cuba, where captain of the third expedition of conquest in the continental zone of the New Spain was named, where it was prohibited him to found permanent colonies.
Diego de Velasquez trusted him, thus, after three days it arrived at the island of Cozumel, with the antecedents of two previous expeditions, the one of Francisco Hernandez of Cordova, in 1517, where more than half of the conquerors they were assassinated, in spite of which, they explored: Cuba, Yucatan and Florida. The other previous expedition, it was lead by Juan de Grijalva, who partially sailed the river that takes to its name in Tabasco and the Alvarado River.
Hernán Cortés was a man of calculated boldness, braves, dominion of people, of very few scruples, of sobriety when eating and drinking, erotic avidity and an excessive ambition of being able and fame, perhaps for that reason, in the long run, the Spanish nobility and captains never trusted him.
The conquest of Mexico – Tenochtitlan
Cortés it arrived at Mexico and first of February of 1519 with 10 boats and 500 soldiers, in Tabasco it had his first combats, which won, there it received to Malinalli like flattery of the local caciques. In Cozumel it had rescued the Jerónimo of Aguilar, who would be along with Malinalli the interpretative
connection of the conqueror in the first months of this saga.
The 21 of April of 1519 arrived at San Juan de Ulúa and in spite of the restriction of not founding permanent colony; it founded Villa Rica of the Veracruz, the first permanent locality in the American continent.
In Zempoala it had some battles, previous to an agreement of collaboration with the totonacos against the mexicas, obtaining of this form, thousand totonacos soldiers more for its army. In this place it received an embassy of Moctezuma where they overwhelmed it with sumptuous gifts. Something similar happened with those of Tlaxcala, where it added other two thousands of allies. In the course to Mexico - Tenochtitlan, the army of Cortés, it surprised the inhabitants of Cholula, where it killed three thousand cholultecas more.
In May of 1520, Courteous it kidnaps to Moctezuma II and one dozen of mexicas noble, among others to Cuitláhuac, brother of the Great Tlatoani. Cortés it returned to Veracruz to negotiate with Pánfilo de Narváez, that it came from Cuba by the conqueror; without I engage the clutch what it was obtained went to add to near thousand new Spanish soldiers to the conquest. In that lapse, Pedro de Alvarado did not control a ceremony in honor of Tezcatlipoca and assassin and kills in the Greater Temple the priests of this deity, what untied the anger of the mexicas against the Spaniards. Cortés above to the Palace of Axayácatl and to try to save the situation it released to part of the noble, among others: Cuitláhuac, who takes the leadership from the rebellion against the invaders. The 30 of June of 1520, in a desperate act, Courteous it requests to Moctezuma II that at the top of the palace demands the stop of the revolt, but this one, it dies, stoned by the displeased crowd. At night, they try to flee, but they are discovered and the army of Courteous is almost destroyed in Mexico - Tenochtitlan, miraculously, Courteous and their main captains manage to escape by the road of Tlacopan (Tacuba), it cried his defeat in the base of ahuehuete in the town of Popotla, giving foot to at night sad episode. Paradoxically, Cuitláhuac, winner in this battle, it falls ill of smallpox and it dies the few days, a nephew will replace his, prince of Mexico - Tlaltelolco: Cuahutémoc. The 7 of Julio, the few Spaniards and tlaxcaltecas that were still on of fight do in front and win the battle of Otumba and prepare the final offensive to the mexica capital, which will be surrounded by 12 brigs.
After a prolonged site and to have poisoned the water provisions, the capital of the mexicas: Mexico - tenochtitlan falls the 13 of August of 1521.
The conquest in the Great Chichimeca.
The conquest of the north of Guanajuato has two antecedents: one is the call war of the Mixtón, to the northeast of Guadalajara and the other: the commercial relations and of conquest undertaken by the otomíes of Jilotepec, under the auspice of the Spaniards; both events happened in second half of the decade of 1530.
In 1541, the first viceroy of the New Spain, Antonio de Mendoza, one occurred to the task of colonizing the North border, through the armed conquest and the evangelization. Although, the official foundation of the first villa of San Miguel was in 1542, it already existed a commercial relation and with conquest aims and initiated evangelization, among others, by Conín or Hernando de Tapia, otomí caudillo, ally to the Spaniards, participant in the expansion of the northern border in those years, ever since it occupied the Gorge, in Querétaro, with converted otomíes natives to the Catholicism, who, along with the cacique of dominion of Jilotepec: Nicolas de San Luis Montañez, subjugated as well by the encomendero (political and military chief) of Apaseo: Hernán Perez de Bocanegra and Cordova, the 25 of June of the 1531 and with her founded Querétaro myth of the battle of Sangremal and the appearance of Santa Cruz of white limestone, copy of appeared next to Mr. Santiago the Apostle, or Santiago matamoros, riding in a white horse, in the middle of the din of the mythical battle between otomíes - Spanish, against pames.
In 1546, when the mines of Zacatecas were discovered, scrambled Navies of chichimecas against the Spaniards began. Properly, the Chichimeca war began in 1550, when a group of zacatecos I attack a Spanish convoy, later the guachichiles and guamares continued with sporadic attacks that went away generalizing in all gran chichimeca. By that then the Camino Real call tended of Inland or the Silver, in order to protect shipments of food or metals.
Purépechas, and otomíes, allies with the Spaniards, they had antagonism towards chichimecas and they were attracted the grain wages and privileges that the Spaniards granted to them, besides to mount to horse and to use the arms you brought by the peninsular ones. On the other hand, chichimecas, they felt scorn by the natives who had embraced the cause of the European. At the beginning of the decade of 1550, the town of original San Miguel (San Miguel the Old one), it had been left, after some attacks of natives copuces.
Between 1551 and 1553, the viceroy Luis de Velasco, it organized three expeditions by the Way of Inland, ordering the foundation of towns between Zacatecas and Querétaro, in 1555, it ordered the re - foundation of San Miguel with Spaniards, tarascos (purépechas) and otomíes.
It was until 1557, when the vein is discovered mother of the mineral of Valenciana and the Real one of Mines of Guanajuato is based, that the first villa of Spaniards is based on Izcuinapan, with the name of San Miguel, to a side of the present place of the Spurt. According to the reference of Pedro Vizcaíno, original inhabitant of San Miguel Viejo, later sacristan and governor of Xichú de Indios, it mentioned: Fray Juan of San Miguel, after founding a congregation of Spaniards and natives to the margin of the present Laja river (San Miguel the Old one), it started off Verde River ago (in the potosina huasteca), happening through Xichú, in order to convert to the Catholicism the Guachichila. Later (1557), Bernardo Cossin, it followed similar steps in San Miguel (Izcuinapan), Xichú and Río Verde.
Although the number of victims is not known chichimecas, the number of those is known the other side: for end of 1561, than 200 Spaniards and 2000 natives allied more in the ways of Guadalajara, Michoacán and Mexico towards the North.
To the death of the viceroy Luis de Velasco in 1564, they followed one another little political defined that affected to chichimecas and the pacification process, since before the lack of manual labor, To the death of the viceroy Luis de Velasco in 1564, they followed one another little political defined that affected to chichimecas and the pacification process, since before the lack of manual labor, impelled by the Dominican Bartholomew of the promulgated Houses and in 1542 and 1543. Somehow, the morality of the Chichimeca War had begun, since it was not clear who had to pay the war, the Spanish crown or the colonizing and if these last ones could make slaves to the captured natives; to these vagueness, the Dominican ones had declared to the Spaniards and colonies like invaders of the territories chichimecas. In 1568, the viceroy Martin Enríquez de Almanza, it ordered the construction of military prisons (the strong military) with the service of military escorts, throughout the way of the silver, of being known in the region San Miguel de Allende those: Hillock of Grandson, Cerritos, San Felipe, Coffer, Xichú, Jalpa, Tolimán, Valleys (in San Luis Potosí) Ivory, Villa de Reyes, Ojuelos, among others.
The viceroy Martin Enríquez justified the slavery of the Indians of the north and obtained that Corona financed the militarization of the region. In 1574, in another meeting summoned by he himself viceroy, the war against chichimecas was approved totally and it was solved that the captured Indians served to the Spaniards by a term of 13 years, being disapproved that agreement only by the Dominican ones. The Augustinians friars (mainly), and Franciscans approved the war, then, king Felipe II, it had restricted politically to the religious orders, having lost to be able the friars, they had to negotiate its participation in the political life of the New Spain.
In Guanajuato, for those years, the Spaniards captured with deceits men women and children to take them to work to the mines, as distant properties and sites as the city of Mexico. For 1576, in the capital of the viceroyalty they had more than 6.000 chichimecas, of which, half had been taken in quality of slaves. The traffic of slaves was an income-producing business since for those dates, an India or Indian of the north cost between 80 and 100 pesos.
The idea to create trimmings was what motivated the foundation of Celaya (1574) and Leon (1575) in the Guanajuato sank bank, where by viceroyalty order, Indians were sent so that worked in these defensive towns, congregations and towns of the region, in agricultural and cattle companies. Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, count of Corunna, fourth viceroy of the New Spain, between 1580 and 1585, it duplicated the number of soldiers in great chichimeca and intensified the creation of military prisons (presidios).
Finally, they were the three last viceroy of the S. XVI in the New Spain, who consolidated La Paz in the region, that is to say: The Viceroy Alonso Manrique de Zúñiga, Marquess of Villamanrique (1585 - 1590, Luis de Velasco II, Marquess of Salt mines (1590 - 1595), and Gaspar de Zúñiga, count de Monterrey (1595 – 1604). They moderated the effective slavery policy by the high costs of the war. It proposed that the missionaries supported to the soldiers through the doctrine and promoted the migration of natives of the center, , to the border to mark the sedentary way the northern ones, tlaxcaltecas to the region of the Laja river and otomíes to San Luis of La Paz.
In a process of cultural assimilation, earth was offered to them, troops, agricultural tools, grains, meat of head of cattle and alcohol. With time, they had to provide themselves with their food, thus chichimecas employees were made more and more which facilitated the ethnic and cultural mestizo process, and in a relatively short time it facilitated its cultural and physical extermination. Mónica Blanco, Alma Parra and Ethelia Ruiz Medrano, they affirm that the change of diet and customs of the indigenous groups of Guanajuato was a determining factor in the extermination and submission of chichimecas of the region. The captain Miguel Boiler, been born in Zacatecas, in 1585 it made the first negotiation of peace with the coras, beginning the process of pacification of the Great Chichimeca, process that would finish officially in 1597, reason by which, the villa of San Luis of La Paz would be based on the northeast of Guanajuato. For those moments, chichimecas was worn away, they had learned to get dressed but they did not know to make his clothes and the almost nomadic life prevented them to have insured its sustenance reason why the clothes and the possibility of a place where to be based the base went of the negotiation. In 1598 a peace accord was signed.
In the process of pacification of century XVI, the Jesuits, under the consent and agreement of the viceroy Luis de Velasco, they founded San Luis of La Paz and they today had the favor of Real of Mines of Palmar de Vega (Pozos, Guanajuato); military prisons and Mercedes of cattle around San Miguel settled down, laying the foundations for the future cattle and agricultural properties of the region.
Consequences of the conquest.
When going away completing the conquest of the old mesoamerican territory, the disappointment came to many Spaniards whom waited for a full territory of wealth and fame, but it even lacked much to conquer and in spite of the great opportunity that represented the New Spain, one required of concerted effort and sacrifice.
In all the New Spain, new technologies like the iron and the wheel were introduced, engineering in mines, with them: new varieties of plants, animals, and consequently, bacteria, virus and fungi. The previous thing, added to the export Europe and native product Asia of America, it originated the transformation at world-wide level, sometimes irreversible, of the local ecosystems; more of the times, with unfortunate consequences for the biodiversity of the Planet.
Within the brought exotic species to the new continent they are, among others: rice, wheat, oats, sugar cane, lentils, broad beans, chick-peas, garlic, onions, sesame, orange trees, banana, bovines, sheep, pigs, goat, position hens, chickens of get fat, and with them, new varieties of insects and mites, like lice, ticks, consequently, new bacteria and virus that did not have natural predators or controls for their fast growth, such as: cattle herons, smallpox, syphilis, etc.
The new investigations on the massive death of natives in America, it indicates the following thing to us: The American continent in 1492 counted with 80 million native people (indigenous), of them, 65 million were Hispano-American, approximately half in the South hemisphere. For year 1700, year in which change of family Spanish Corona (Borbón by Hapsburg), the population of natives had been reduced to single 5 million, an average near 400.000 deaths per year. Some investigators have indicated like the causes: The conquest and its psychological impact, the expansion of the cattle ranch and the transformation of the original habitat, Some investigators have indicated like the causes: The conquest and its psychological impact, the expansion of the cattle ranch and the transformation of the original habitat, the works forced towards the natives, the mestizo process and the epidemics. Even so, lack to study and to solve much on the matter.
V. The syncretism in San Miguel.
It is against this background is that is begun to give to the cultural process of the syncretism between the indigenous beliefs and the peninsular ones, in addition to have added the conquest to the new inhabitants of Hispano-America: the Spanish language as language (language romance with its roots Greco - Latin) plus the Arab cultural influence, Jew - Christian and the Roman catholic religion like publicly the official.
In this process of syncretism, it is necessary to understand that in the zone of the Laja River, one counts on a tradition and mesoamerican cultural baggage of more than two thousand years before the arrival of the Spaniards to the north of Guanajuato, from the Chupicuaro tradition, until a chichimeca, passing through the one of the calls prototoltecas. Added to the previous thing, let us remember that the mesoamericans artistic expressions were abstract, expressed ideas artistic, secret floods of symbolisms and languages, where the conquered and conquering natives, to the encounter with the Spaniards, they will show with new catholic forms in expressions of elitist and popular art the expression of the mesoamerican syncretism, first in the New Spain, and later in the Mexican Republic.
This process has been transformed with time into a mixed process of cultural assimilation and natural acculturation. San Miguel Viejo we can observe astronomical monuments of mesoamerican use designed like chapels and other objects of and for the catholic cult. These catholic designs, they are confused with mesoamericans symbols like: the duality, the five corners of the universe, the three levels in which we lived, nocturnal invocations of the duality, monuments in form of cross associated to lightning, rain and superficial water, etc.
In the main facade of the temple of San Miguel Viejo, we can observe the symbolic and abstract representation of: the months of the ritual calendar, the corners of the universe for the day and the night, the mesoamerican symbol of the fertility and the one of the resistance of the mexicanidad. The previous thing, mixed in characteristics renaissance (romanesque and plateresque) designs, remember of the European Renaissance, example of the previous thing is the pointed arc, access to the vestibule.
In this process of syncretism a dynamic phenomenon of gradual reconstruction of the cultural system existed. In him, there are losses, selections, cultural rediscovery and incorporations that prevail in their dynamics until today.
These sacred symbols that have remained by centuries in the unconscious group of people, they add the communities of people: values that are known and recognized in the own rituals, they create identity, they justify the essence of the being in its community and consolidate the social and cultural structure, own of this small sacred and venerated human centers.
San Miguel el Grande, the viceroyalty.
In the second foundation of San Miguel, happened in 1557 by initiative of the viceroy Velasco and evangelize enthusiasm of fray of Bernardo Cossin, around the spring of el Chorro, probably, a sacred site of the chichimecos, that also he was well-known like: Izcuinapan; the consolidation of the villa of Spaniards with its bordering districts of Indians like the one of Guadiana begins, Ojo de Agua (Water eye), Valle del Maíz, etc. This second foundation occurred in the context of the Chichimeca war, the construction and the consolidation of the call Route of the silver, later: Camino Real of Inland.
In the time that was designing the present main Garden of San Miguel, the social and economic center was around the barns and area of commerce of the town, this zone was located around the present civic seat. When the consistorial house was finished in 1736, the seat of the political and ecclesiastical power to the present main seat was transferred, with time, one filled with great mansions and the vestibules were defined orients and the west of this seat.
Like previous reference to the urban evolution of San Miguel, it is possible to mention that in the present territory of the state of Guanajuato, the first founded cities were the following ones: Acámbaro in 1528, Yuririapúndaro, today Yuriria in 1533, By two occasions: 1542 and 1557, San Miguel.
In 1630, the more important guanajuatenses towns were the following ones: like villas of Spaniards: Guanajuato, Leon, Silao, Irapuato, Salamanca, San Miguel Grande and Celaya.
Like indigenous towns: Cuicillo and San Miguel (in the present city of Leon), San Francisco of the Corner, Pénjamo, Numarán, Sumbilla, Yuriria, Apaseo, Tiristarán, San Miguel el Grande, San Nicholas Maravatío, Irámuco, Eménguaro, Guacindeo, Acámbaro, Xerécuaro, Tarimoro, Coroneo, Puruaga, Aguascalientes (near the present Apaseo el Alto). Between: Chamacuero and Celaya: San José, San Miguel and San Juan.
The Indians of workings were located around: Guanajuato, Irapuato, Maravatío, Chamacuelo, Santiago Neutla, Apaseo and San Miguel el Grande.
At those moment, the present state of Guanajuato belonged to the diocese of Michoacán, with seat in Valladolid (today Morelia) and it was in Pátzcuaro and Uruapan, were manufactured, Christs, virgins and saints with maize cane maize cane paste (tied without leaves, polished and covered with stucco and kneaded with orchid juice, nopales or cactus flat leaves and lemons), many of these, with characteristics and spirit of the mesoamericans natives.
Considering the proposal of Karl Jüng, about the pattern primigenio with which the towns have forged their religious processes and events through the creation of myths and rituals that are reinforced to each other, and deciphered towards the religiousness in the daily life in the proposal of Joseph Campbell, or interpreted for mesoamericans myths by Alfredo Lopez Austin, we can understand many of the popular manifestations that happen in San Miguel de Allende and their environs like expression of the syncretism of traditions: Jew - Christian, Greco - Latin, and Arabs - Moorish, with the great cultural affluent that represents the mesoamerican culture with more than two thousand five hundred years of existence and transformation.
Nowadays, there is who discovers in some maize cane sculptures, the face and skin of the jaguar, nahualli of nocturnal Venus, associated with Xólotl - Tezcatlipoca, others recognize the three pens, symbol of the resistance and conquers of the spirit of the mexicanidad, Saints like San Isidro the farmer and San Juan, associated to rains and fertility; The celebrations of Señor San Miguel, like marker between the passage of the fertile duality to the drought, etc.
Although, these knowledge are continued transmitting of voice, in a confidence process that is tiled and obtains slow, to the passage of decades; the syncretism rituals of the popular celebrations of the region of the old San Miguel el Grande one, they are: identity events, regeneration of the tradition, voice of the districts and rural communities that refuses to lose their sense of property to the community, generated through rituals where the soul, the mind and the body agree in the local liturgies that arise from the cultural currents that are and they become one in the Mexican syncretism.
With the passage of more 465 years, from the foundation of San Miguel by the Spaniards, the local cultural syncretism has masked in the styles and political ways, economic, social, cultural and until ecological that they are reflected in the architectonic styles that prevail in the own San Miguel de Allende or Guanajuato City. For example, the temple of the Company of Jesus, in capital Guanajuato, it shows in its architecture the stylistic proposals: Renaissance, baroque, neoclassic and until eclectic (in its cupola).
In San Miguel de Allende, we can observe of the architecture with Renaissance reminiscences, that they speak to us of the first days of the Spanish domination, espadañas or bell towers done in vertical walls, these, they are common in some churches of San Miguel de Allende, like the following ones: temple of Guadalupe in the chapel of the Dominican school Institute Las Casas, or, the Franciscan temple of the Third order to a flank of the one of San Francisco.
As far as the manifestation of the architecture baroque, promoted by the real family of the Hapsburg and that as much association had the mesoamerican spirit to decorate profusely facades and surfaces of buildings with symbols masked in a game of resistances between: volumes and flat surfaces, air lines and curved, brightness and shades, colorful in tones clear pies and, with elements filled with optical and symbolic illusions; we have the plants of most of the catholic temples, some facades like the one of the temple of San Francisco, The Health, or the Oratorio.
Unfortunately, more for political reasons than aesthetic, many altarpieces, painting mural and scenery of walls of baroque style, the interior and outside of the catholic temples were lost of, being replaced by altarpieces in wood and quarry of neoclassic type and by sober painting, using the target in most of the times.
The neoclassic style, it was mainly a symbol of the new dominated political times under the Borbón family, when assuming Spanish Corona: Felipe V of Borbón (grandson of Luis XIV, king of France), replacing, in 1700, to last Hapsburg emperor: Carlos II the enchanted one, who no longer could have descendants and died laboriously, as resulting from long endogamous marriages in those courts. Even so, in San Miguel we can observe great neoclassic works, like: the bell tower of the temple of San Francisco or the palace of the Counts of the Channel.
Century XIX in San Miguel de Allende.
At the end of the viceroyalty, that non colony perhaps (reason why the term of virreinal architecture had to prevail over the one of colonial architecture), during the fight between the Masonic factions developed in century XIX and showed politically in the parties liberal and preservative next to the influences of the United States, on the one hand and of France and England by the other, the eclectic style in some constructions took place, like: the facade of the Parish, the tower of the clock, or the cupola of the temple of the Nuns, works of Don Zeferino Gutiérrez, inspired, and sometimes, almost copied completely from postal of the Cathedral of Colony, in Germany, the Big Ben of London, or the cupola of Less Invalides in París.
By the same, to affirm that the architecture or style of San Miguel de Allende is colonial or that its religiosity is prevailing catholic, it would be to deny the complexes three hundred years of the Spanish domination, from the first 20, of the first and second hearings and following the 280 years of viceroyalty, it would be not to mainly recognize the drama of tragic century XIX and, the years of mesoamerican culture, that until today, they follow presents in the popular manifestations, and until daily of that we inhabited San Miguel de Allende, the north of Guanajuato and the territories that were Mesoamérica and its border with the great Chichimeca in century XVI.
The Post - revolution edge.
At the end of the Mexican Revolution, in Mexico, after 400 years, the mesoamerican culture was revalued, and somehow, it was begun to globalization the importance of her in the context of the continent and the planet.
Almost parallel, with the foundation of the first school of arts in San Miguel de Allende in 1938, by the Peruvian Felipe Cosío del Pomar and the American Sterling Dickinson, in cloister of the convent of Las Monjas (the nuns), the presence of foreigners and strangers, it promoted involuntarily, at least two great anthropological phenomena: promoting the local traditions revalued and the tolerance wing coexistence with strangers and foreigners.
The contemporary syncretism.
In that context, traditions like the one of the Señor (Master) de la Conquista, yuntas, dance of concheros and market gardeners, they have been become rich with an endless number of rescued rituals, stood out or promoted in last half of century XX, like those of Water Eye, Valle del maíz (Valley of the Corn), Guadiana, San Jose del Obraje, etc. For many, nowadays it is easier to observe similar symbolic answers between different religious traditions, as the crossings, the use of mirrors, color, candles, lights, floral fragrances, redecorated fixed altars, domiciliary altars reinvented year with year, the strident and cathartic celebration of the crazy people, inns, day of the Virgin of the Candelas (or de la Luz), etc.
Of more natural way and perhaps with greater identity and veneration towards the images and bores, in the countryside the syncretism between the forms is observed with greater evidence I pretend Catholics and the masked symbolism mesoamerican, as much in the forms as in the rituals and myths. A synthesis of the previous thing constitutes racially mixed instruments as the shells of armadillo or traditions as the same tradition of the dance of concheros in the catholic vestibules and their design of cruise of five points in the co noticed celebrations more of this dance.
But perhaps the most sacred symbol, venerated and syncretism it constitutes the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe and myths and rituals around her, from the new massive manifestations around the new sanctity of San Juan Diego to the symbolic image that greater identity generates between the Mexicans, Latin American or its descendants beyond the borders, since it they have been artistic manifestations and until of promotion of the rights of the working emigrants in the main cities of the United States and that in April and May of this year of the 2006 they have emerged like an ethnic group that shares more than common symbols.
In this image sacred in different religious traditions in Mexico, Latin America and the world, the myths and rituals recreate in sacred rituals with foundations, theological or of Mexican theogony, creating in the unconscious group of most of Mexican the preponderant syncretism symbol of the spirit of Mexico. Nowadays, the acculturation phenomenon that occurs in San Miguel de Allende and their environs, it reaches its climax in the festivities of Mr. San Miguel in the month of September. In this celebration, that from its review, until its culmination it mobilizes to thousands of people in tens of communities of the north of Guanajuato, neighbors of the Laja river and districts of San Miguel de Allende are an alive expression of the local identity in throne to myths and rituals that give sense us of communitarian property, already in the popular collective unconscious, or even, in the different ritual expressions according to the diverse socio - economics classes or even, ethnic groups.
This popular celebration, during last the thirty years it has undergone a process of important acculturation in its rituals and even its myths, yes we have it velación (spend the night) and elaboration of the xúchiles, it is bound to a process of greater participation and sometimes, of financing not so disinterested or free of political and economic interests. Around the extraction of teaspoon, it is increased the conscience about the care of the ecosystem and more rational use of this plant, in order to avoid that it follows threatened its existence and the one of other alive species of the central high plateau and the north.
In recent years, the acculturation is pronounced in Hispanic dances of other regions of the Mexican Republic, some of them, promoted by communities of resident natives in San Miguel de Allende, like part of a local migratory phenomenon, attracted by the opportunity to sell crafts in this tourist site, so it is the case of the totonacos natives that year after year participate in this mythical celebration - ritual, following the rituals local, as it is it the encounter in the Cross of the quarter and its later procession and dance towards the Parish to culminate with his well-known liturgical dance like the voladores of Papantla.
In this process of acculturation, also we have the ethylic ritual - commercial, typical of the this one Mexican consumer society, known like the sanmiguelada.
Parallel, to other rituals related to the myth creation on the part of the political class and some of the companies related to the bars occur, brewers, bars, restaurants, hotels and promoters of events, that they go from: races of waiters, the installation of mechanical games, roundups, dances, coronation of queens and princess of the celebrations, parades of allegorical cars; until almost total the implicit permission on the part of the local state, federals authorities, to turn to the historical center of San Miguel de Allende, in a hysteric cavern that presents a public bar, including the baths, in its streets, seats and public parks.
The previous thing occurs before I embarrass of the local people that remain in the city and the condescending of governors and participant business people, one doubles moral with reminiscence of the privileged classes of the viceroyalty times, where these take from hostage to the majority to save their interests of promotion and to be able economic politician and from promoting the sanmiguelada one towards the young tourism that comes from the main cities bordering to San Miguel de Allende, between 400 and 500 Kms; Monterrey, Tower, San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes, Leon, Guadalajara, Morelia, Toluca, México and Querétaro, in addition to those of Guanajuato.
New myths, new rituals for the control of masses and great benefits to small groups, reflection of the primitive model of dominion (economic - politician) of the tribe on the part of the governing clan, that fortunately, by the rudimentary grotesque and of the event, it cannot last more of a weekend. Of course, a exuberates and strident endless number of celebrations and popular manifestations exist as are it those of the crazy people, carnival, and the one of Mr. San Miguel, but also other processes of identity occur related to the field or the sports, beautiful arts, artisan, social, etc.
All of them simultaneously occur in San Miguel de Allende and the North of Guanajuato, in a unique and complex context that marks to the personality of which we inhabited this region, and where, of one or another form, the cultural inheritance is manifest Greco - Latin, Arab - Moorish, Jew - Christian, recently, the consumerist, according to the United States model and, of course, the millenarian inheritance of Mesoamérica.
To recognize the complexity of the local context in this time and space, including the political circumstances, economic, social, ecological and cultural, it is a necessity to understand better the wealth and threats of this exceptional place, to experience this complex one, multiethnic and contrast society of San Miguel de Allende, with an open and tolerant attitude to the cultural diversity, and participation with the society is a great advance towards one better coexistence in this unique space of Mexico.
Mesoamérica, it is one of the fundamental keys in the understanding and experience of life of which we inhabited this region, to participate in its knowledge and recognition in the daily life of the San Miguel de Allende´s people our perception for the greater delight and joy of our hours, days and years in San Miguel de Allende.